- Provide a clear view of the pupil’s situation to his/her parents. Explain to the pupil with dyslexia that she or he has a reading difficulty which with help can be overcome. Emphasise that she or he is able to learn. Try to emphasise their strengths.
- Keep parents informed and enlist their support where possible.
- Foster positive self-esteem in pupils. Give genuine praise whenever possible and promote activities that yield success.
- Be aware of different learning styles and be flexible in your teaching style. Accept that everyone learns differently and recognise each pupil’s learning difference.
- Encourage and support a whole-school policy on learning differences and early identification and intervention.
· Differentiate in the classroom by modifying class work and homework, materials, texts and tests.
· Build up a bank of resources for the pupil. This will not be your last pupil with dyslexia, and you will be more prepared for the next one.
· Employ visual and oral stimuli in the classroom environment.
· Differentiate tasks, including practical activities, to provide opportunities for extensive enhancement, practice and consolidation;
· Use the appropriate language to support the activity being undertaken.
· Provide opportunities for individual, small group and whole class work, giving feedback as relevant.
· Prepare charts, overhead projector acetates, computer-based presentations and blackboard work that is clear and precise, and where appropriate supported with pictorial cues.
· Employ Information and Communication Technology (ICT) resources including educational software, hardware, and web resources that are appropriate to the pupil’s needs.
· Evaluate all commercial texts and sources to ensure readability and, where necessary, establish ways of enhancing readability.
· Assess the whole pupil rather than the specific learning difficulty; identify the strengths and areas for support and further development.
· Be aware of and keep a record of error patterns in areas such as reading, spelling, writing and number work.
· Ensure that the pupil’s individualised education plan is reflected in practice in the classroom setting.
· Cooperate collegially with support teachers, including, where relevant, the special education needs coordinator.
· Implement the policy, practices and procedures established in the school’s special education needs/dyslexia policy.
· When a classroom or special needs assistant is available, provide advice and direction to enhance the learning of students with dyslexia and ensure a clear understanding of roles.
· See the section titled ‘Strategies for Mainstream Teachers -ages pre-school - 7 (The Early Years)’
· See the section titled ‘Strategies for Mainstream Teachers – ages 8 – 11’
- Mainstream primary teachers can address memory difficulties by –
· Training pupils in the creation and use of mind maps
· Frequently assessing the work of the pupil informally and formally and identifying aspects needing review
· Sitting the pupil close to the teacher
· Ensuring clarity of classroom and homework tasks
· Consolidating and practicing familiar skills
· Rehearsing familiar knowledge
· Making sure the pupil receives important information in written or audio-taped form
- Mainstream primary teachers can address sequencing difficulties by –
· Placing items in sequence
· Practicing sequencing activities and games
· Developing activities to enhance understanding of left/right top/bottom; above/below/ in/out; next to, beside, between/ in the middle, to the side of, and other spatial/directional terms
- Mainstream primary teachers can address visual-perceptual difficulties by
· Providing repetitive practice with alphabetical and numerical cards
· Using stencils of letters and numerals
· Using stencils of upper and lower case letters
· Using cards with picture cues for number operations
· Using language flashcards for social sight word activities
· Using graphics or picture cues for directional movement
- Mainstream primary teachers can address reading difficulties by –
· Encouraging reading for meaning
· Providing text at an appropriate level of difficulty
· Analysing oral reading error and providing appropriate follow-up
· Using appropriately a look, cover, say, check method to encourage sight word learning
· Highlighting significant text, and focussing upon formal terminology in curriculum areas such as history or science
· Providing graphic and picture cues
· Constructing logs/diaries of essential words and lists of specific terminology assisted with picture and graphics cues
· Creating pupil-teacher conferencing activities
· Using appropriate literacy software
- Mainstream primary teachers can address mathematical difficulties by –
· Employing appropriate apparatus for the development of the understanding of number
· Employing Mind Maps and graphical and pictorial cues for number operations
· Employing materials for the development of understanding throughout the requirements of the curriculum
· Analysing pupils error patterns in written calculations
· Developing informal and formal mathematical language through practical activity within structured play, with structured apparatus and concrete materials, and in concrete fashion during activities involving problem solving or investigational situations
· Using practical situations, and cross-curricular opportunities such as physical education to develop spatial awareness of pupils
· Developing mental mathematics and mental mathematical strategies as alternatives to pencil and paper recording and implement the appropriate and sensible use of the electronic calculator
· Employing mathematical games, physical- and ITC-generated, to assist with consolidation and practice
· Using appropriate maths software
· Planning learning experience across the width of the curriculum before commencing upon the hierarchy of the concepts, so establishing sensible inter- conceptual links and relational understanding.
- Mainstream primary teachers can address writing difficulties by –
· Encouraging and practicing correct posture
· Employing activities to practice manipulative skills and movement
· Employing writing frames, outlines, flowcharts and/or mind maps to develop ideas and concepts
· Encouraging the process of drafting and redrafting
· Using appropriate educational software tools to support writing
· Employing doodle pads – both physical and ICT generated
· Employing a variety of writing implements according to the age and needs of the pupil
· Employing materials to address letter reversal where they persist
· Encouraging the use of an appropriate learning strategy (e.g. look-say-cover-write-check) to learn individual words for spelling
· Training the processes of revising and proof-reading
- Mainstream primary teachers can address emotional and behavioural difficulties by –
· Reducing the pressure upon the pupil to verbally respond in front of his/her peers
· Creating opportunities for collaborative working environments
· Demonstrating that pupil responses are valued
· Ensuring that classroom-based and homework tasks are appropriate to the ability of the pupil
· Providing consistency of approach through partnership with parents, explaining the strategies to be employed in the classroom and school setting and those to be mirrored in the home setting
· Reducing pupil anxiety by planning for pupil success, goal achievement and reward conferring